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Theranostics. 2013 Mar 20;3(4):258-66. doi: 10.7150/thno.5701. Print 2013.

Toxicity assessments of near-infrared upconversion luminescent LaF3:Yb,Er in early development of zebrafish embryos.

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1
Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of Ministry of Education, Institute of Micro-Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, PR China.

Abstract

This study reports the effects of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) LaF3:Yb,Er on zebrafish, with the aim of investigating UCNPs toxicity. LaF3:Yb,Er were prepared by an oleic acid/ionic liquid two-phase system, and characterized by transmission electron microscope and X-ray powder diffraction. 140 zebrafish embryos were divided into six test groups and one control group, and respectively were injected into 5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 μg/mL LaF3:Yb,Er@SiO2 solution, and respectively were raised for 5 days. Each experiment was repeated ten times. Results showed that water-soluble LaF3:Yb,Er were successfully prepared, and did not exhibit obvious toxicity to zebrafish embryos under 100 μg/mL, but exhibited chronic toxicities 200 μg/mL in vivo, resulting in malformations and delayed hatching rate and embryonic and larval development. The excretion channels of LaF3:Yb,Er in adult zebrafish were mainly found in the intestine after being injected evenly for 24 h. In conclusion, the exploration of LaF3:Yb,Er for in vivo applications in animals and humans must consider UCNPs biocompatibility.

KEYWORDS:

Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs); biocompatibility; toxicity; zebrafish embryo.

PMID:
23606912
PMCID:
PMC3630526
DOI:
10.7150/thno.5701
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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