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Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 May;97(5):995-1003. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.049247.

Human metabolism and elimination of the anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-glucoside: a (13)C-tracer study.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Evidence suggests that the consumption of anthocyanin-rich foods beneficially affects cardiovascular health; however, the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) of anthocyanin-rich foods are relatively unknown.

OBJECTIVE:

We investigated the ADME of a (13)C5-labeled anthocyanin in humans.

DESIGN:

Eight male participants consumed 500 mg isotopically labeled cyanidin-3-glucoside (6,8,10,3',5'-(13)C5-C3G). Biological samples were collected over 48 h, and (13)C and (13)C-labeled metabolite concentrations were measured by using isotope-ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

RESULTS:

The mean ± SE percentage of (13)C recovered in urine, breath, and feces was 43.9 ± 25.9% (range: 15.1-99.3% across participants). The relative bioavailability was 12.38 ± 1.38% (5.37 ± 0.67% excreted in urine and 6.91 ± 1.59% in breath). Maximum rates of (13)C elimination were achieved 30 min after ingestion (32.53 ± 14.24 μg(13)C/h), whereas (13)C-labeled metabolites peaked (maximum serum concentration: 5.97 ± 2.14 μmol/L) at 10.25 ± 4.14 h. The half-life for (13)C-labeled metabolites ranged between 12.44 ± 4.22 and 51.62 ± 22.55 h. (13)C elimination was greatest between 0 and 1 h for urine (90.30 ± 15.28 μg/h), at 6 h for breath (132.87 ± 32.23 μg/h), and between 6 and 24 h for feces (557.28 ± 247.88 μg/h), whereas the highest concentrations of (13)C-labeled metabolites were identified in urine (10.77 ± 4.52 μmol/L) and fecal samples (43.16 ± 18.00 μmol/L) collected between 6 and 24 h. Metabolites were identified as degradation products, phenolic, hippuric, phenylacetic, and phenylpropenoic acids.

CONCLUSION:

Anthocyanins are more bioavailable than previously perceived, and their metabolites are present in the circulation for ≤48 h after ingestion. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01106729.

PMID:
23604435
DOI:
10.3945/ajcn.112.049247
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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