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Forensic Sci Int. 2013 May 10;228(1-3):95-9. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2013.02.045. Epub 2013 Mar 22.

A microwave-assisted fluorescent labeling method for the separation and detection of amphetamine-like designer drugs by capillary electrophoresis.

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  • 1Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan Normal University, 88 Sec. 4, Tingchow Road, Taipei, Taiwan.


A microwave-assisted fluorescence labeling method for use in CE-LIF (capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence) is described. Six amphetamine-like designer drugs, namely, o-, m-, p-chloro- and o-, m-, p-fluoro-amphetamine derivatives, were synthesized and used as model compounds. FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate isomer I) and a blue-laser were used as the fluorescent labeling reagent and excitation source, respectively. When a microwave oven was used, the reaction was complete within ∼5 min, while the classical method required at least 20 h (usually, an overnight reaction). A mimic oral fluid sample was obtained by spiking oral fluid from a volunteer with the six standards, and after liquid-liquid extraction and microwave-derivatization, it was possible to process the analytes by CE-LIF within a period of ∼10 min; the wavelength of the blue-laser used was 473 nm. For comparison, data obtained using classical methods, including CZE-UV (capillary zone electrophoresis-UV absorbance detection), sweeping-MEKC-UV (micellar electrokinetic chromatography-UV absorbance detection) and LC-Q-TOFMS (liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry) are also reported.

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