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J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2013 Jun;18(2):165-9. doi: 10.1007/s10911-013-9277-5. Epub 2013 Apr 17.

Ectodysplasin/NF-κB signaling in embryonic mammary gland development.

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Developmental Biology Program, Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.


The ectodysplasin (Eda) signaling pathway consists of a TNF-like ligand Eda, its receptor Edar, and an adaptor protein Edaradd and its activation leads to NF-κB mediated transcription. In humans, mutations in the EDA pathway genes cause hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, a disorder characterized by defective formation of hair follicles, teeth, and several exocrine glands including the breast. Embryonic mammary gland development proceeds via placode, bud, bulb and sprout stages before the onset of branching morphogenesis. Studies on mouse models have linked Eda with two aspects of embryonic mammary gland morphogenesis: placode induction and ductal growth and branching. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the role of Eda/NF-κB in mammary gland development.

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