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Blood. 2013 Jun 6;121(23):4635-46. doi: 10.1182/blood-2012-06-436345. Epub 2013 Apr 15.

The immunologic effects of maraviroc intensification in treated HIV-infected individuals with incomplete CD4+ T-cell recovery: a randomized trial.

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Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA.


The CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc has been hypothesized to decrease T-cell activation in HIV-infected individuals, but its independent immunologic effects have not been established in a placebo-controlled trial. We randomized 45 HIV-infected subjects with CD4 counts <350 cells per mm(3) and plasma HIV RNA levels <48 copies per mL on antiretroviral therapy (ART) to add maraviroc vs placebo to their regimen for 24 weeks followed by 12 weeks on ART alone. Compared with placebo-treated subjects, maraviroc-treated subjects unexpectedly experienced a greater median increase in % CD38+HLA-DR+ peripheral blood CD8+ T cells at week 24 (+2.2% vs -0.7%, P = .014), and less of a decline in activated CD4+ T cells (P < .001). The % CD38+HLA-DR+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased nearly twofold in rectal tissue (both P < .001), and plasma CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) ligand (macrophage-inflammatory protein 1β) levels increased 2.4-fold during maraviroc intensification (P < .001). During maraviroc intensification, plasma lipopolysaccharide declined, whereas sCD14 levels and neutrophils tended to increase in blood and rectal tissue. Although the mechanisms explaining these findings remain unclear, CCR5 ligand-mediated activation of T cells, macrophages, and neutrophils via alternative chemokine receptors should be explored. These results may have relevance for trials of maraviroc for HIV preexposure prophylaxis and graft-versus-host disease. This trial was registered at as #NCT00735072.

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