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Curr Hypertens Rep. 2013 Jun;15(3):175-81. doi: 10.1007/s11906-013-0344-5.

Potential role of uric acid in metabolic syndrome, hypertension, kidney injury, and cardiovascular diseases: is it time for reappraisal?

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Section of Nephrology and Hypertension, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1542 Tulane Avenue, Room 330A, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.


Elevated serum uric acid concentration is a common laboratory finding in subjects with metabolic syndrome/obesity, hypertension, kidney disease and cardiovascular events. Hyperuricemia has been attributed to hyperinsulinemia in metabolic syndrome and to decreased uric acid excretion in kidney dysfunction, and is not acknowledged as a main mediator of metabolic syndrome, renal disease, and cardiovascular disorder development. However, more recent investigations have altered this traditional view and shown, by providing compelling evidence, to support an independent link between hyperuricemia and increased risk of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension, kidney disease and cardiovascular disorders. However, despite these new findings, controversy regarding the exact role of uric acid in inducing these diseases remains to be unfolded. Furthermore, recent data suggest that the high-fructose diet in the United State, as a major cause of hyperuricemia, may be contributing to the metabolic syndrome/obesity epidemic, diabetes, hypertension, kidney disease and cardiovascular disorder. Our focus in this review is to discuss the available evidence supporting a role for uric acid in the development of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, renal disease, and cardiovascular disorder; and the potential pathophysiology mechanisms involved.

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