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J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Jun;53(6):642-53. doi: 10.1002/jcph.79. Epub 2013 Apr 15.

Time-dependent inhibition and induction of human cytochrome P4503A4/5 by an oral IAP antagonist, LCL161, in vitro and in vivo in healthy subjects.

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Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ 07936, USA.


Tumor cells can evade programmed cell death via up-regulation of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). LCL161 is a small molecule oral IAP antagonist in development for use in combination with cytotoxic agents. The effect of LCL161 on CYP3A4/5 (CYP3A) activity was investigated in vitro and in a clinical study. Results in human liver microsomes indicated LCL161 inhibited CYP3A in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (KI of 0.797 µM and kinact of 0.0803 min(-1) ). LCL161 activated human PXR in a reporter gene assay and induced CYP3A4 mRNA up to ∼5-fold in human hepatocytes. In healthy subjects, the dual inhibitor and inductive effects of a single dose of LCL161 were characterized using single midazolam doses, given before and at three time points after the LCL161 dose. Midazolam Cmax increased 3.22-fold and AUC(0-inf) increased 9.32-fold when administered four hours after LCL161. Three days later, midazolam Cmax decreased by 27% and AUC(0-inf) decreased by 30%. No drug interaction remained one week later. The strong CYP3A inhibition by LCL161 was accurately predicted using dynamic physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling approaches in Simcyp. However, the observed induction effect after the LCL161 dose could not be modeled; suggesting direct enzyme induction by LCL161 was not the underlying mechanism.

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