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Sensors (Basel). 2013 Apr 12;13(4):4979-5007. doi: 10.3390/s130404979.

Study of the electrocatalytic activity of cerium oxide and gold-studded cerium oxide nanoparticles using a Sonogel-Carbon material as supporting electrode: electroanalytical study in apple juice for babies.

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Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Cadiz, Spain.


The present work reports a study of the electrocatalytic activity of CeO2 nanoparticles and gold sononanoparticles (AuSNPs)/CeO2 nanocomposite, deposited on the surface of a Sonogel-Carbon (SNGC) matrix used as supporting electrode and the application of the sensing devices built with them to the determination of ascorbic acid (AA) used as a benchmark analyte. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used to investigate the electrocatalytic behavior of CeO2- and AuSNPs/CeO2-modified SNGC electrodes, utilizing different concentrations of CeO2 nanoparticles and different AuSNPs:CeO2 w/w ratios. The best detection and quantification limits, obtained for CeO2 (10.0 mg·mL(-1))- and AuSNPs/CeO2 (3.25% w/w)-modified SNGC electrodes, were 1.59 × 10(-6) and 5.32 × 10(-6) M, and 2.93 × 10(-6) and 9.77 × 10(-6) M, respectively, with reproducibility values of 5.78% and 6.24%, respectively, for a linear concentration range from 1.5 µM to 4.0 mM of AA. The electrochemical devices were tested for the determination of AA in commercial apple juice for babies. The results were compared with those obtained by applying high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a reference method. Recovery errors below 5% were obtained in most cases, with standard deviations lower than 3% for all the modified SNGC electrodes. Bare, CeO2- and AuSNPs/CeO2-modified SNGC electrodes were structurally characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). AuSNPs and AuSNPs/CeO2 nanocomposite were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and information about their size distribution and shape was obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The advantages of employing CeO2 nanoparticles and AuSNPs/CeO2 nanocomposite in SNGC supporting material are also described. This research suggests that the modified electrode can be a very promising voltammetric sensor for the determination of electroactive species of interest in real samples.

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