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Ocul Surf. 2013 Apr;11(2):93-108. doi: 10.1016/j.jtos.2013.01.003. Epub 2013 Jan 28.

Corneal crosslinking with riboflavin and ultraviolet A. Part II. Clinical indications and results.

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1
Department of Ophthalmology, Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Dresden, Germany. Frederik.Raiskup@uniklinikum-dresden.de

Abstract

Changes in the biomechanical properties of the human cornea play an important role in the pathogenesis of corneal ectatic diseases. A variety of conditions in primary acquired (keratoconus and pellucid marginal degeneration) or secondary induced (iatrogenic keratectasia after excimer refractive laser surgery) corneal ectatic disorders lead to reduced biomechanical resistance. Corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) has emerged as a promising technique to slow or even to stop the progression of these corneal ectatic pathologies. In this procedure, riboflavin (vitamin B2) is administered in conjunction with ultraviolet A light (UVA, 365 nm). This interaction causes the formation of reactive oxygen species, leading to the formation of additional covalent bonds between collagen molecules, with consequent biomechanical stiffening of the cornea. Although this method is not yet accepted as an evidence-based medicine modality for the treatment of corneal primary or secondary ectasias, the results of prospective, randomized studies of CXL used in the treatment of these pathologic entities show significant changes in the properties of corneal tissue. This procedure is currently the only etiopathogenetic approach in ectatic eyes that can delay or stop the process of cornea destabilization, reducing the necessity for keratoplasty. Despite promising results, CXL is associated with issues that include long-term safety and duration of the stabilizing effect. Combination of CXL with vision-improving procedures, such as topography-guided custom ablation and implantation of intracorneal ring segments of phakic intraocular lenses, may expand the indications for this procedure.

PMID:
23583044
DOI:
10.1016/j.jtos.2013.01.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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