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Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2012 Dec;26(6):775-89. doi: 10.1016/j.bpg.2013.01.007.

Colonic and rectal NET's.

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Royal Free Hospital, London, UK.


Neuroendocrine tumours of the Colon and Rectum are rare but are increasing in incidence as a result of greater investigation with endoscopy and improved histological reporting. Classification with the 2010 WHO TNM staging system as well as grading based on the Ki-67 index has led to improved prognostic assessment. The use of Endoanal Ultrasound has increased the sensitivity of detection of depth of invasion and lymphovascular involvement, which is associated with a poor prognosis. Standard polypectomy has largely been replaced by endoscopic mucosal resection of smaller polyps, although newer techniques such as band ligation or endoscopic submucosal dissection are likely to be associated with less residual disease. The management of advanced disease remains a challenge but new treatments such as Peptide Receptor Targeted therapy and molecular targeted treatments offer hope of improved progression free survival in non-resectable disease.

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