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Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2013 Jun;45(6):639-47. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2013.03.006. Epub 2013 Apr 10.

Patient-specific rehearsal prior to EVAR: a pilot study.

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Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.



This study aims to evaluate feasibility, face validity, influence on technical factors and subjective sense of utility of patient-specific rehearsal (PsR) prior to endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR).


A prospective, multicentre pilot study.


Patients suitable for EVAR were enrolled and a three-dimensional (3D) model of the patient's anatomy was generated. Less than 24 h prior to the real case, rehearsals were conducted in the laboratory or clinical angiosuite. Technical metrics were recorded during both procedures. A subjective questionnaire was used to evaluate realism, technical and human factor aspects (scale 1-5).


Ten patients were enrolled. In one case, the treatment plan was altered based on PsR. In 7/9 patients, the rehearsal significantly altered the optimal C-arm position for the proximal landing zone and an identical fluoroscopy angle was chosen in the real procedure. All team members found the rehearsal useful for selecting the optimal fluoroscopy angle (median 4). The realism of the EVAR procedure simulation was rated highly (median 4). All team members found the PsR useful to prepare the individual team members and the entire team (median 4).


PsR for EVAR permits creation of realistic case studies. Subjective evaluation indicates that it may influence optimal C-arm angles and be valuable to prepare the entire team. A randomised controlled trial (RCT) is planned to evaluate how this technology may influence technical and team performance, ultimately leading to improved patient safety.

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