Send to

Choose Destination
Cortex. 2013 Oct;49(9):2377-88. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2013.03.002. Epub 2013 Mar 19.

Episodic future thinking is impaired in the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia.

Author information

Neuroscience Research Australia, Randwick, Sydney, Australia; School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:


Remembering the past and imagining the future are complex endeavours proposed to rely on a core neurobiological brain system. In the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), regional patterns of brain atrophy affect medial prefrontal and temporal cortices of this core network. While autobiographical memory impairments have been documented in bvFTD, it remains unknown whether the ability to imagine future events is also compromised. Here, we investigated episodic future thinking in 10 bvFTD patients and contrasted their performance with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 10) and healthy matched Control (n = 10) participants. Participants were asked to remember 3 events from the previous year and to envisage 3 possible events that could occur in the next year. Both patient groups showed equivalent episodic detail performance for the retrieval of past events and the simulation of possible future episodes. Patients with bvFTD, however, showed additional impairments for the generation of external (non-episodic) details irrespective of condition. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed divergent neural correlates of episodic past and future thinking performance specific to each patient group. Atrophy in the posterior cingulate cortex was implicated in the disruption of past and future thinking in AD. In contrast, in bvFTD, disruption of past retrieval correlated with atrophy in medial prefrontal regions, whereas future thinking deficits were associated with atrophy of frontopolar, medial temporal regions including the right hippocampus, and lateral temporal and occipital cortices. Our results point to the involvement of multiple brain regions in facilitating retrieval of past, and simulation of future, events. Damage to any of these key regions thus adversely affects the ability to engage in personally relevant mental time travel.


Autobiographical memory; Dementia; Episodic memory; Hippocampus; Imagination

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center