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J Long Term Eff Med Implants. 2012;22(3):195-209.

The nano-effect: improving the long-term prognosis for musculoskeletal implants.

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School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA.


Due to their superior cytocompatible, mechanical, electrical, optical, catalytic, and magnetic properties, nanomaterials (materials with one dimension ≤100 nm) have been investigated intensely for numerous medical applications including, most notably, as improved tissue engineering materials and in situ sensors. In particular, compared to conventional materials (materials without one dimension ≤100 nm) used for orthopedic applications, nanomaterials have demonstrated an enhanced capability to restore, maintain, and improve bone tissue formation while inhibiting inflammation and infection. This review article elucidates several promising examples of nanomaterials (including polymers, metals, and ceramics) to improve musculoskeletal implant performance in terms of enhanced bone cell functions, reduced inflammation, and inhibiting infection. With respect to the emergence of tissue engineering in orthopedic applications, this review summarizes recent efforts to develop nanostructured polymers and self-assembled nano-materials, which have improved bone growing properties than traditional permanent orthopedic medical devices.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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