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Oncologist. 2013;18(4):377-8. doi: 10.1634/theoncologist.2012-0378. Epub 2013 Apr 11.

Multicenter phase II study of tivozanib (AV-951) and everolimus (RAD001) for patients with refractory, metastatic colorectal cancer.

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Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.



Treatments that target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway have efficacy in colorectal cancer. We evaluated tolerability and efficacy of tivozanib (an oral VEGF receptor-1, -2, -3 inhibitor) plus everolimus (an oral mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor).


The phase Ib study followed a 3 + 3 dose-escalation design with three dose levels. The primary objective in the follow-on phase II study was improvement in 2-month progression-free survival (PFS) from 30% (historical benchmark) to 50% in patients with refractory, metastatic colorectal cancer.


Dose-limiting toxicities in the phase Ib study were grade 3 fatigue and dehydration. Oral tivozanib (1 mg daily for 3 of 4 weeks) and oral everolimus (10 mg daily continuously) were advanced to a 40-patient phase II study. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were thrombocytopenia and hypophosphatemia. The 2-month PFS rate was 50%, with 20 of 40 patients having stable disease (SD). Seven (18%) patients were treated for ≥6 months. Median PFS and overall survival (OS) times were 3.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9-3.6 months) and 5.6 months (95% CI: 4.4-10.6 months), respectively. Patients who developed grade 1+ hypertension had increased SD rates (65.2% vs. 29.4%) and longer OS times (10.6 vs. 3.7 months).


The oral combination of tivozanib and everolimus was well tolerated, with stable disease achieved in 50% of patients with refractory, metastatic colorectal cancer.

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