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Int J Cancer. 2013 Oct 15;133(8):1882-91. doi: 10.1002/ijc.28203. Epub 2013 May 9.

Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, dietary fatty acids and prostate cancer risk.

Author information

1
Cancer Epidemiology Centre, Cancer Council Victoria, Carlton, VIC, Australia. julie.bassett@cancervic.org.au

Abstract

Animal and experimental studies have demonstrated that long-chain n-3 fatty acids inhibit the development of prostate cancer, whereas n-6 fatty acids might promote it. We performed a case-cohort analysis within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study using a random sample of 1,717 men and 464 prostate cancer cases to investigate associations between fatty acids assessed in plasma phospholipids (PPLs) or diet (estimated using a 121-item food frequency questionnaire) and prostate cancer risk. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox regression. Prostate cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL saturated fatty acids (SFAs); HR [95% CI] = 1.51 [1.06, 2.16] (Q5 vs. Q1, fifth vs. first quintile); p-trend = 0.003. HRs (Q5 to Q2 vs. Q1) were significantly elevated for %PPL palmitic acid. %PPL oleic acid was inversely associated with risk, HR = 0.62 [0.43, 0.91] (Q5 vs. Q1); p-trend = 0.04. No statistically significant linear trends were observed for dietary intakes. The HRs were elevated for moderate intakes of linoleic acid (Q2 and Q3 vs. Q1, 1.58 [1.10, 2.28] and 1.70 [1.18, 2.46], respectively), but the increase was not significant for higher intakes (Q4 and Q5). No association varied significantly by tumour aggressiveness (all p-homogeneity > 0.1). Prostate cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL SFA, largely attributable to palmitic acid and inversely associated with %PPL monounsaturated fatty acids, largely attributable to oleic acid. Higher risks were also observed for dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fats, primarily linoleic acid.

KEYWORDS:

cohort study; fatty acids; prostate cancer

PMID:
23575905
DOI:
10.1002/ijc.28203
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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