Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Nat Commun. 2013;4:1665. doi: 10.1038/ncomms2647.

Mitotic spindle orientation predicts outer radial glial cell generation in human neocortex.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, 35 Medical Center Way, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

Abstract

The human neocortex is increased in size and complexity as compared with most other species. Neocortical expansion has recently been attributed to protracted neurogenesis by outer radial glial cells in the outer subventricular zone, a region present in humans but not in rodents. The mechanisms of human outer radial glial cell generation are unknown, but are proposed to involve division of ventricular radial glial cells; neural stem cells present in all developing mammals. Here we show that human ventricular radial glial cells produce outer radial glial cells and seed formation of the outer subventricular zone via horizontal divisions, which occur more frequently in humans than in rodents. We further find that outer radial glial cell mitotic behaviour is cell intrinsic, and that the basal fibre, inherited by outer radial glial cells after ventricular radial glial division, determines cleavage angle. Our results suggest that altered regulation of mitotic spindle orientation increased outer radial glial cell number, and ultimately neuronal number, during human brain evolution.

PMID:
23575669
PMCID:
PMC3625970
DOI:
10.1038/ncomms2647
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center