Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Cogn Neurosci. 2013 Jul;25(7):1078-99. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_00393. Epub 2013 Apr 11.

The invisible hand illusion: multisensory integration leads to the embodiment of a discrete volume of empty space.

Author information

Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.


The dynamic integration of signals from different sensory modalities plays a key role in bodily self-perception. When visual information is used in the multisensory process of localizing and identifying one's own limbs, the sight of a body part often plays a dominant role. For example, it has repeatedly been shown that a viewed object must resemble a humanoid body part to permit illusory self-attribution of that object. Here, we report a perceptual illusion that challenges these assumptions by demonstrating that healthy (nonamputated) individuals can refer somatic sensations to a discrete volume of empty space and experience having an invisible hand. In 10 behavioral and one fMRI experiment, we characterized the perceptual rules and multisensory brain mechanisms that produced this "invisible hand illusion." Our behavioral results showed that the illusion depends on visuotactile-proprioceptive integration that obeys key spatial and temporal multisensory rules confined to near-personal space. The fMRI results associate the illusion experience with increased activity in regions related to the integration of multisensory body-related signals, most notably the bilateral ventral premotor, intraparietal, and cerebellar cortices. We further showed that a stronger feeling of having an invisible hand is associated with a higher degree of effective connectivity between the intraparietal and ventral premotor cortices. These findings demonstrate that the integration of temporally and spatially congruent multisensory signals in a premotor-intraparietal circuit is sufficient to redefine the spatial boundaries of the bodily self, even when visual information directly contradicts the presence of a physical limb at the location of the perceived illusory hand.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Atypon
    Loading ...
    Support Center