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Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Jun;37(11):1103-11. doi: 10.1111/apt.12304. Epub 2013 Apr 10.

Dysmotility and proton pump inhibitor use are independent risk factors for small intestinal bacterial and/or fungal overgrowth.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Whether intestinal dysmotility and the use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) either independently or together contributes to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and/or small intestinal fungal overgrowth (SIFO) is not known.

AIM:

To investigate the role of dysmotility and PPI use in patients with persistent gastrointestinal complaints.

METHODS:

Patients with unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms and negative endoscopy/radiology tests completed a validated symptom questionnaire and underwent 24-h ambulatory antro-duodeno-jejunal manometry (ADJM). Simultaneously, duodenal aspirate was obtained for aerobic, anaerobic and fungal culture. Dysmotility was diagnosed by (>2): absent phase III MMC, absent/diminished postprandial response, diminished amplitude of antral/intestinal phasic activity, impaired antro-duodenal coordination. Bacterial growth ≥10³ CFU/mL or fungal growth was considered evidence for SIBO/SIFO. PPI use was documented. Correlation of symptoms with presence of SIBO or SIFO was assessed.

RESULTS:

One hundred and fifty subjects (M/F = 47/103) were evaluated; 94/150 (63%) had overgrowth: 38/94 (40%) had SIBO, 24/94 (26%) had SIFO and 32/94 (34%) had mixed SIBO/SIFO. SIBO was predominately due to Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Klebsiella and E. coli. SIFO was due to Candida. Eighty of 150 (53%) patients had dysmotility and 65/150 (43%) used PPI. PPI use (P = 0.0063) and dysmotility (P = 0.0003) were independent significant risk factors (P < 0.05) for overgrowth, but together did not pose additional risk. Symptom profiles were similar between those with or without SIBO/SIFO.

CONCLUSIONS:

Dysmotility and PPI use were independent risk factors for SIBO or SIFO and were present in over 50% of subjects with unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms. Diagnosis of overgrowth requires testing because symptoms were poor predictors of overgrowth.

PMID:
23574267
PMCID:
PMC3764612
DOI:
10.1111/apt.12304
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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