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Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013;6(4):650-9. Epub 2013 Mar 15.

Gestational diabetes induces chronic hypoxia stress and excessive inflammatory response in murine placenta.

Author information

1
Department of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 6th People's Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 6th People's Hospital, Shanghai 200233, China. hpli819@sohu.com

Abstract

Metabolic impairments in maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) induce an abnormal environment in peripheral blood and cause vascular structure alterations which affect the placental development and function. A GDM model was developed using C57BL/6J female mice fed with high fat food (HF) (40% energy from fat) and a control group with control food (CF) (14% energy from fat) for 14 weeks before mating and throughout the gestation period. A subset of dams was sacrificed at gestational day (GD) 18.5 to evaluate the fetal and placental development. HF-fed dams exhibited significant increase in the maternal weight gain and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), impaired insulin secretion of glucose stimulus and glucose clearance of insulin stimulus before pregnancy; in addition, they also had the increase in the fetal and placental weight. HF-fed dams at GD 18.5 showed the high level of circulating maternal inflammation factors and were associated with increased oxidative stress and hypoxia in the labyrinth, abnormal vascular development with a high level of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and VEGF-A expression, but without a parallel increase in CD31 level; were induced an exaggerated inflammatory response in placental vascular endothelial cell. Our findings show that GDM induces more maternal weight gain and fetus weight, with abnormal maternal circulating metabolic and inflammation factors, and forms a placental hypoxia environment and impacts the placental vascular development. Our findings indicate that gestational diabetes induce excessive chronic hypoxia stress and inflammatory response in placentas which may contribute mechanisms to the high risks of perinatal complications of obesity and GDM mothers.

KEYWORDS:

GDM; High fat diet; hypoxia; inflammation factor; obesity; oxidative stress; placenta

PMID:
23573311
PMCID:
PMC3606854
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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