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Opt Express. 2013 Apr 8;21(7):8320-30. doi: 10.1364/OE.21.008320.

Phase modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguides.

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Institute of Microelectronics, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 11 Science Park Road, Science Park-II, 117685 Singapore.


An extremely compact Si phase modulator is proposed and validated, which relies on effective modulation of the real part of modal index of horizontal metal-insulator-Si-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguides by a voltage applied between the metal cover and the Si core. Proof-of-concept devices are fabricated on silicon-on-insulator substrates using standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology using copper as the metal and thermal silicon dioxide as the insulator. A modulator with a 1-μm-long phase shifter inserted in an asymmetric Si Mach-Zehnder interferometer exhibits 9-dB extinction ratio under a 6-V/10-kHz voltage swing. Numerical simulations suggest that high speed and low driving voltage could be achieved by shortening the distance between the Si core and the n(+)-contact and by using a high-κ dielectric as the insulator, respectively.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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