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Neuropsychologia. 2013 Oct;51(12):2344-51. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.03.019. Epub 2013 Apr 6.

Human hippocampal increases in low-frequency power during associative prediction violations.

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Stanford Human Intracranial Cognitive Electrophysiology Program (SHICEP), United States; Department of Psychology, Stanford University, United States; Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Green Hall, Princeton, NJ 08542, United States. Electronic address:


Environmental cues often trigger memories of past events (associative retrieval), and these memories are a form of prediction about imminent experience. Learning is driven by the detection of prediction violations, when the past and present diverge. Using intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG), we show that associative prediction violations elicit increased low-frequency power (in the slow-theta range) in human hippocampus, that this low-frequency power increase is modulated by whether conditions allow predictions to be generated, that the increase rapidly onsets after the moment of violation, and that changes in low-frequency power are not present in adjacent perirhinal cortex. These data suggest that associative mismatch is computed within hippocampus when cues trigger predictions that are violated by imminent experience.


Associative memory; Hippocampus; Intracranial EEG; Mismatch; Novelty; Prediction violation

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