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Nano Lett. 2013 May 8;13(5):1903-9. doi: 10.1021/nl303863s. Epub 2013 Apr 18.

Noninvasive spatial metrology of single-atom devices.

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Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052, Australia.


The exact location of a single dopant atom in a nanostructure can influence or fully determine the functionality of highly scaled transistors or spin-based devices. We demonstrate here a noninvasive spatial metrology technique, based on the microscopic modeling of three electrical measurements on a single-atom (phosphorus in silicon) spin qubit device: hyperfine coupling, ground state energy, and capacitive coupling to nearby gates. This technique allows us to locate the qubit atom with a precision of ±2.5 nm in two directions and ±15 nm in the third direction, which represents a 1500-fold improvement with respect to the prefabrication statistics obtainable from the ion implantation parameters.

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