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Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012 Jul;2(7):532-6. doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60091-4.

Molecular study of HCV detection, genotypes and their routes of transmission in North West Frontier Province, Pakistan.

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Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB), National University of Science and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan.



To determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and explore the associated risk factors in chronic HCV patients.


A total of 116 patients with chronic hepatitis C were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based detection out of which 112 chronic HCV patients [53 male (47.32%), 59 female (52.68%); mean age (43.76±16.40) years; mean BMI (23.8±3.9) kg] were enrolled in this study. The frequency of 6 HCV genotypes and associated risk factors were evaluated from five districts of North West Frontier Province (NWFP).


Genotype 3 was the most prevalent in 73 samples (65.17%) followed by genotype 1 in 24 (21.42%) and genotype 2 in 13 (11.60%) samples. Genotype 3 had significantly high prevalence (P=0.000 2). The results showed that 48 (42.85%) samples were infected with HCV 3a; 25 (22.32%) with 3b; 14 (12.50%) with 1a; 10 (8.92%) with 1b; 11 (9.82%) with 2a; 2 (1.78%) with 2b; and 2 were untypable. The distribution of HCV genotypes in Mardan, Charsadda, Peshawar, Sawabi and Nowshehra districts was different. Use of unsterile equipment for medication, barbers and previous history of hospitalization were the main risk factors for HCV transmission.


Genotype 3a and 3b, 1a, 1b and 2a are the common genotypes in NWFP. Genotype 4, 5, and 6 can not be found in a single sample. The level of awareness about various modes of transmission of HCV among the population is found to be very low.


Genotypes; HCV; Molecular study; NWFP; PCR; Risk factors; Subtype 3a; Transmission

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