Send to

Choose Destination
Int Urogynecol J. 2013 Sep;24(9):1529-36. doi: 10.1007/s00192-012-2039-x. Epub 2013 Apr 9.

European content validation of the Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA) questionnaire in patients with overactive bladder.

Author information

Department of Urogynecology, St. Mary's Hospital, Imperial College, Cambridge Wing, Praed Street, London, W2 1NY, UK.



The Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA) questionnaire is a patient-completed instrument designed to assess goal attainment in the behavioral or pharmacologic treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), including overactive bladder (OAB). The SAGA questionnaire allows patients to identify and rank the importance of treatment goals before treatment is initiated; the follow-up SAGA questionnaire quantifies the achievement of these patient-identified goals. The objective of this qualitative research was to confirm the content validity of the German, Spanish, Swedish, and English (UK) language versions of the SAGA questionnaire in patients with OAB with or without other LUTS.


The SAGA questionnaire was translated to each language in accordance with a well-established forward and backward harmonization method. Patient interviews were then conducted according to a cognitive debriefing methodology. Qualitative analysis of patients' input allowed assessment of content validity of each linguistically adapted SAGA questionnaire.


All patients (nā€‰=ā€‰29; six to eight per targeted country) found the SAGA questionnaire easy to understand and to complete. Most patients completed the nine prespecified (fixed) treatment goals and were able to add up to five personal goals in the open-ended portion and rate each goal by importance. Differences were identified in how the various languages communicated some of the concepts assessed with the SAGA questionnaire. Rewording of the translated versions of the questionnaire was necessary in some cases.


This linguistic content validation study in four European languages indicates that SAGA is a comprehensive, easy-to-understand, and relevant questionnaire for patient-completed evaluation of LUTS/OAB symptoms and treatment goal attainment.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center