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Mol Psychiatry. 2014 Apr;19(4):444-51. doi: 10.1038/mp.2013.36. Epub 2013 Apr 9.

The association between low vitamin D and depressive disorders.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, and EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research and Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical Center/GGZ inGeest, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
2
Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
3
Endocrine Section, Department of Internal Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
4
Department of Clinical Chemistry, VU University Medical Center, The Netherlands.
5
Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
6
Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
7
1] Department of Psychiatry, and EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research and Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical Center/GGZ inGeest, Amsterdam, The Netherlands [2] Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands [3] Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Abstract

It has been hypothesized that hypovitaminosis D is associated with depression but epidemiological evidence is limited. We investigated the association between depressive disorders and related clinical characteristics with blood concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in a large cohort. The sample consisted of participants (aged 18-65 years) from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) with a current (N=1102) or remitted (N=790) depressive disorder (major depressive disorder, dysthymia) defined according to DSM-IV criteria, and healthy controls (N=494). Serum levels of 25(OH)D measured and analyzed in multivariate analyses adjusting for sociodemographics, sunlight, urbanization, lifestyle and health. Of the sample, 33.6% had deficient or insufficient serum 25(OH)D (<50 nmol l(-1)). As compared with controls, lower 25(OH)D levels were found in participants with current depression (P=0.001, Cohen's d=0.21), particularly in those with the most severe symptoms (P=0.001, Cohen's d=0.44). In currently depressed persons, 25(OH)D was inversely associated with symptom severity (β=-0.19, s.e.=0.07, P=0.003) suggesting a dose-response gradient, and with risk (relative risk=0.90, 95% confidence interval=0.82-0.99, P=0.03) of having a depressive disorders at 2-year follow-up. This large cohort study indicates that low levels of 25(OH)D were associated to the presence and severity of depressive disorder suggesting that hypovitaminosis D may represent an underlying biological vulnerability for depression. Future studies should elucidate whether-the highly prevalent-hypovitaminosis D could be cost-effectively treated as part of preventive or treatment interventions for depression.

PMID:
23568194
DOI:
10.1038/mp.2013.36
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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