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Neuroimage. 2013 Sep;78:224-32. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.03.061. Epub 2013 Apr 6.

Definition of DLPFC and M1 according to anatomical landmarks for navigated brain stimulation: inter-rater reliability, accuracy, and influence of gender and age.

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EA 4391, Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris Est Créteil, and Service de Physiologie-Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôpital Henri-Mondor, AP-HP, Créteil, France.


The optimization of the targeting of a defined cortical region is a challenge in the current practice of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the primary motor cortex (M1) are among the most usual TMS targets, particularly in its "therapeutic" application. This study describes a practical algorithm to determine the anatomical location of the DLPFC and M1 using a three-dimensional (3D) brain reconstruction provided by a TMS-dedicated navigation system from individual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The coordinates of the right and left DLPFC and M1 were determined in 50 normal brains (100 hemispheres) by five different investigators using a standardized procedure. Inter-rater reliability was good, with 95% limits of agreement ranging between 7 and 16 mm for the different coordinates. As expressed in the Talairach space and compared with anatomical or imaging data from the literature, the coordinates of the DLPFC defined by our algorithm corresponded to the junction between BA9 and BA46, while M1 coordinates corresponded to the posterior border of hand representation. Finally, we found an influence of gender and possibly of age on some coordinates on both rostrocaudal and dorsoventral axes. Our algorithm only requires a short training and can be used to provide a reliable targeting of DLPFC and M1 between various TMS investigators. This method, based on an image-guided navigation system using individual MRI data, should be helpful to a variety of TMS studies, especially to standardize the procedure of stimulation in multicenter "therapeutic" studies.

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