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Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2013 Jun;34(6):1569-75. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2013.03.372. Epub 2013 Apr 6.

Orally administered LPS enhances head kidney macrophage activation with down-regulation of IL-6 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

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Department of Integrated and Holistic Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Takamatsu, Kagawa, Japan.


Immunostimulants represent a promising aquaculture tool for enhancing disease and stress resistance in cultured fish. Moreover, the term and dose for acting immunostimulants is an important thing for fish farmer. This study investigated the immune parameters of common carp after oral administration of LPS (5, 10, 20 μg/kg/days) for 30 and 60 days, which is considered to be the proper time period for acting in aquaculture. Phagocytic and bactericidal activities of head kidney macrophages and serum lysozyme activities were significantly enhanced in LPS-fed carp. Orally administered LPS augmented the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and TNF-α mRNAs but reduced the expression of IL-6 mRNA in head kidney. Although LPS was detected in the serum and liver after a high-dose (>15 mg/kg) oral administration, it was not detected by administered LPS-specific ELISA after a low-dose (<20 μg/kg) administration. It is speculated that orally administered LPS enhances the eliminating functions of head kidney macrophages with down-regulation of IL-6.

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