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Photochem Photobiol. 2013 Jul-Aug;89(4):968-73. doi: 10.1111/php.12078. Epub 2013 May 20.

Shade provision for toddlers at swimming pools in Melbourne.

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Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Yallambie, Victoria, Australia.


This study assessed the UVR protection provided by shade structures over toddler pools at swimming pool centers in Melbourne. The UVR protection was measured using a combination of UV sensitive polysulfone film to derive an average value during the middle of the day (1-2 P.M.) and handheld UV meters to derive the time variability in UV protection between 11 A.M. and 3 P.M. The amount of UVR protection provided by the shade structures depended upon a number of factors such as location, size, and materials used, but generally ranged from a protection factor (PF) of 2 to ~ 16. The higher PFs were generally for larger structures or where the shade had other structures nearby. The handheld UV meter measurements showed the UV protection varied with position under the shade structure as well as with time of day. While provision of shade structures is becoming more widespread around Australia, improving the shade availability at the pool centers overall, the application of recommendations regarding the provision of shade has been followed to a varying degree by many of the pools visited in this study. In many cases, continued further improvements can be made to provide more adequate protection and further reduce UV exposures.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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