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Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Dec;16(Suppl 2):S438-40. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.104123.

Precipitation of new onset diabetes by H1N1 infection.

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1
Department of Endocrinology, Medwin Hospital, Hyderabad.

Abstract

Infectious diseases in type 2 diabetes can complicate diabetic ketoacidosis, derange hyperglycemia, or precipitate new onset diabetes. Pulmonary tuberculosis being the most common. High index of clinical suspicion is required for co-existing H1N1 virus, which if present has high mortality if not treated. A 63-year-old female, with no known chronic illness, was hospitalized in month of Aug 2010 with influenza-like symptoms and diabetes. Quick evaluation revealed tachycardia, tachypnea, p02 90% at room air, and normotensive. Clinical chest examination was normal. Further evaluation revealed NHO in both lung fields on chest X-ray, hyperglycemia 325 mg/dl, detected for first time. Her signs and symptoms were out of proportion to clinical findings and chest X-ray findings. Patient was managed with insulin infusion and empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic coverage in ICU. As her condition worsened over next 12 hrs, infection with H1N1 was suspected and empirically started on oseltamavir after taking throat swab for H1N1 test and later, the sample was tested positive for H1N1 influenza by RT-PCR. Clinical course in the hospital was complicated by oxygen dependence requiring 10-12 ltr/hr by nasal mask. She made an uneventful recovery. In a known diabetic, infection with H1N1 quadruples ICU hospitalization, and only few cases of new onset diabetes with H1N1 were reported. Two reported from Iran had fatal outcome. This case emphasis on clinical acumen in recognition, and prompt institution of therapy will reduce associated mortality.

KEYWORDS:

Diabetes; H1N1; infections

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