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Asian J Androl. 2013 May;15(3):309-13. doi: 10.1038/aja.2013.29. Epub 2013 Apr 8.

Genetics and genomics of prostate cancer.

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  • 1Cancer and Inflammation Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.


Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignancies in the world with over 890 000 cases and over 258 000 deaths worldwide each year. Nearly all mortalities from PCa are due to metastatic disease, typically through tumors that evolve to be hormone-refractory or castrate-resistant. Despite intensive epidemiological study, there are few known environmental risk factors, and age and family history are the major determinants. However, there is extreme heterogeneity in PCa incidence worldwide, suggesting that major determining factors have not been described. Genome-wide association studies have been performed and a considerable number of significant, but low-risk loci have been identified. In addition, several groups have analyzed PCa by determination of genomic copy number, fusion gene generation and targeted resequencing of candidate genes, as well as exome and whole genome sequencing. These initial studies have examined both primary and metastatic tumors as well as murine xenografts and identified somatic alterations in TP53 and other potential driver genes, and the disturbance of androgen response and cell cycle pathways. It is hoped that continued characterization of risk factors as well as gene mutation and misregulation in tumors will aid in understanding, diagnosing and better treating PCa.

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