Send to

Choose Destination
Toxicol In Vitro. 2013 Aug;27(5):1525-32. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2013.03.013. Epub 2013 Apr 2.

The effects of vitamin A on cells of innate immunity in vitro.

Author information

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University-Hospital of Zürich, Switzerland.


Retinoid treatment is suggested to promote development of inflammatory bowel disease, although preclinical studies are not supportive. We evaluated the effect of retinoids on cytokine response in in vitro-differentiated human dendritic cells (ivDCs) and macrophages (ivMACs) derived from healthy human donors and in cultured human THP-1 cells. Effect on human intestinal epithelial cell integrity was also assessed. Each cell type was incubated (±lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), 13-cis-RA (isotretinoin) and 4-oxo-13-cis-RA. Cytokine analysis was performed by array analysis. Cultured human endothelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells were incubated with these retinoids and media analyzed for leakage by spectrofluorometric analysis. ATRA consistently and significantly inhibited LPS-induced release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-6, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-1β. All retinoids tested stimulated release of the anti-inflammatory cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-10, and also monocyte chemotactic protein-1, vascular endothelial growth factor and eotaxin-1. Incubation with retinoids did not significantly alter the permeability of Caco-2 monolayers. Pre-treatment of each cell type with retinoids promoted an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile with only minimal effect on intestinal epithelial cell permeability; consistent with in vivo studies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center