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Arch Pediatr. 2013 May;20(5):476-83. doi: 10.1016/j.arcped.2013.02.069. Epub 2013 Apr 3.

[A retrospective study to evaluate a protocol aimed at reducing the number of unnecessary voiding cystourethrographies performed after a first episode of febrile urinary tract infection].

[Article in French]

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Service de pédiatrie A, American Memorial Hospital, CHU de Reims, 47, avenue Cognacq-Jay, 51092 Reims cedex, France.



Whether or not voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) should be performed after a first episode of urinary tract infection (UTI) remains a matter of debate. The role of VCUG is primarily to diagnose high-grade vesicoureteral reflux (≥grade III) (VUR) and hence prevent the development of renal scars and poor long-term outcome. We designed a protocol designed to reduce the indications for performing unnecessary VCUGs after a first episode of febrile UTI. In order to evaluate the efficacy of our protocol, we designed a retrospective study to verify whether high-grade VUR was subsequently being underdiagnosed.


This study compared the number of cases of VUR diagnosed over 2 1-year periods in children aged 1 month to 18 years. Data were collected from records held in the pediatric emergency department of the University Hospital of Reims. All cases included had presented to the department with a first episode of febrile UTI. During the first 1-year collection period, all patients underwent a VCUG. During the second collection period, the protocol was in place and VCUG was only performed in children with a serum procalcitonin level greater than 1 ng/L and/or an abnormal renal ultrasound scan.


During the first year, 100 patients underwent routine VCUG and 7 cases of high-grade VUR were diagnosed. During the following year, VCUG was limited according to the new protocol: 102 patients were enrolled, 52 VCUGs were performed and 8 cases of high-grade VUR were diagnosed. Cases of low-grade VUR (I and II) were less frequently detected, without significant consequences for the patients.


The protocol led to a 40% decrease in the number of VCUGs performed. No cases of high-grade VUR were missed; however, the number of VCUGs performed with a normal outcome remained significant.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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