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J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2013 Jan;5(1):30-8. doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.106561.

Current interventions in the management of knee osteoarthritis.

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Department of Biomedical Engineering, Adaptive Neural Systems Laboratory, Miami, Florida, USA.


Osteoarthritis (OA) is progressive joint disease characterized by joint inflammation and a reparative bone response and is one of the top five most disabling conditions that affects more than one-third of persons > 65 years of age, with an average estimation of about 30 million Americans currently affected by this disease. Global estimates reveal more than 100 million people are affected by OA. The financial expenditures for the care of persons with OA are estimated at a total annual national cost estimate of $15.5-$28.6 billion per year. As the number of people >65 years increases, so does the prevalence of OA and the need for cost-effective treatment and care. Developing a treatment strategy which encompasses the underlying physiology of degenerative joint disease is crucial, but it should be considerate to the different age ranges and different population needs. This paper focuses on different exercise and treatment protocols (pharmacological and non-pharmacological), the outcomes of a rehabilitation center, clinician-directed program versus an at home directed individual program to view what parameters are best at reducing pain, increasing functional independence, and reducing cost for persons diagnosed with knee OA.


Arthrocentesis; Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scale; hydrotherapy; musculoskeletal disorders; neuromuscular efficiency; osteoarthritis; pharmacological; quadriceps

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