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Ther Adv Hematol. 2011 Dec;2(6):393-407. doi: 10.1177/2040620711412417.

Therapeutic options in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders.

Abstract

Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are the second most frequent malignancies after solid organ transplantation and cover a wide spectrum ranging from polyclonal early lesions to monomorphic lymphoma. Available treatment modalities include immunosuppression reduction, immunotherapy with anti-B-cell monoclonal antibodies, chemotherapy, antiviral therapy, cytotoxic T-cell therapy as well as surgery and irradiation. Owing to the small number of cases and the heterogeneity of PTLD, current treatment strategies are mostly based on case reports and small, often retrospective studies. Moreover, many studies on the treatment of PTLD have involved a combination of different treatment options, complicating the evaluation of individual treatment components. However, there has been significant progress over the last few years. Three prospective phase II trials on the efficacy of rituximab monotherapy have shown significant complete remission rates without any relevant toxicity. A prospective, multicenter, international phase II trial evaluating sequential treatment with rituximab and CHOP-based chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) is ongoing and preliminary results have been promising. Cytotoxic T-cell therapy targeting Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cells has shown low toxicity and high efficacy in a phase II trial and will be a future therapeutic option at specialized centers. Here, we review the currently available data on the different treatment modalities with a focus on PTLD following solid organ transplantation in adult patients.

KEYWORDS:

CHOP; antiviral therapy; cytotoxic T-cells; immunosuppression reduction; interferon alpha; post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD); rituximab; treatment

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