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J Educ Health Promot. 2012;1:19. doi: 10.4103/2277-9531.99219. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

Evaluation of self-care practices and relative components among type 2 diabetic patients.

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Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.



The purpose of this study was to assess self-care practices and their relative components among type 2 diabetic patients. We hypothesized that some sociodemographic and health-related factors, high diabetes distress, and low self-efficacy would be associated with poorer self-care practices.


A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 6 months in 2011. Study population was type 2 diabetic patients referring to Omolbanin center, an outpatient diabetic center in Isfahan. One hundred forty diabetic patients met the inclusion criteria and were all included in the study. Patients' self-care practices were measured by Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities (SDSCA) self-report scale that includes items on the following aspects of the diabetes regimen: General diet, specific diet, exercise, blood glucose testing, foot care, medications, and smoking. Diabetes distress measured by Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS) scale and Stanford diabetes self-efficacy scale was used for scoring this issue. Collected data were analyzed by using SPSS software version 11.5.


Participants were between the ages of 37 and 75 years, with a mean of 53.23 years (SD=7.82). Fifty-four percent (n=76) were females; 97.1% were married (n=136), and 53.6% had education lower than diploma (n=75). Mean of duration of diabetes was 7.1 (SD=5.63) years. "Medications" subscale was considered as the most important one in measuring diabetes self-care practices (5.24 ± 2.38 days/week). Study findings revealed that general diet had significant relation with comorbidity, type of treatment, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS), (Blood Sugar) (BS), waist circumference, diabetes distress, and self-efficacy. Specific diet had significant relation with comorbidity, education, triglyceride (TG), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and low density lipoprotein (LDL). Exercise showed significant relation with history of diabetes, education, type of treatment, disease duration, TG, BMI, and BS. Also, blood glucose testing showed significant relation with disease duration, self-efficacy, TG, DBP, BS, LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL). On the other hand, foot care was related to age, diabetes distress, TG, BMI, HDL, and diabetes complications. Medications subscale as the most important subscale of self-care practices was relevant with age, disease duration, diabetes complications, type of treatment, FBS, HDL, and self-efficacy. The last subscale, smoking, had significant relation with sex, diabetes complications, diabetes distress, self-efficacy, TG, total cholesterol, BS, and HDL.


This information should be used in clinical practice when targeting and designing educational and care plan for patients with type 2 diabetes.


Diabetes distress; self-care; self-efficacy; type 2 diabetes

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