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J Educ Health Promot. 2012;1:13. doi: 10.4103/2277-9531.98571. Epub 2012 Jul 30.

Predicting mammography stage of adoption among Iranian women.

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Research Center for Environment Health and Department of Public Health, School of Health, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Pasdaran Street, Sanandaj, Iran.



Despite evidence that screening for breast cancer is effective, adherence with screening recommendations in Iranian women is low. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the associations between individual characteristics, related health beliefs, and stages of mammography behavior and (2) examine the socio-demographic factors and the health beliefs that predicate stages of mammography behavior.


All health care centers were considered as clusters and 30 women were randomly selected from each of them. A sample of 689 Iranian women completed a questionnaire.


The questionnaire used was based on Champion's revised Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). One-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to assess differences in the outcome variables (perceived severity, susceptibility, benefits, and barriers) across the stages. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to test multivariate relationships.


THE PERCENTAGE OF PARTICIPANTS IN EACH STAGE WAS: 40.1% in pre-contemplation, 34.7 in contemplation, 7.5% in relapse, 12% in action, and 5.7% in maintenance stage of mammography adoption. Older women were most likely to be in the pre-contemplation stage and action stage, and the youngest women were most likely to be in the relapse stage. Differences across stages of change were found for related beliefs for all participants except those in the relapse stage.


Iranian women are less likely to be in maintenance and action stages than ot er Asian women and this study identifies constructs that may be targeted in interventions.


Breast cancer; Iranian women; stages of mammography behavior

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