Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Gut Microbes. 2013 May-Jun;4(3):241-5. doi: 10.4161/gmic.23999. Epub 2013 Apr 2.

Customizing laboratory mice by modifying gut microbiota and host immunity in an early "window of opportunity".

Author information

Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.


We recently investigated how post-natal microbial gut colonization is important for the development of the immune system, especially in the systemic compartments. This addendum presents additional data which in accordance with our previous findings show that early life microbial colonization is critical for a fine-tuned immune homeostasis to develop also in the intestinal environment. A generalized reduction in the expression of immune signaling related genes in the small intestine may explain previously shown increased systemic adaptive immune reactivity, if the regulatory cross-talk between intra- and extra-intestinal immune cells is immature following a neonatal germ-free period. These findings are furthermore discussed in the context of recently published results on how lack of microbial exposure in the neonatal life modifies disease expression in rodents used as models mimicking human inflammatory diseases. In particular, with a focus on how these interesting findings could be used to optimize the use of rodent models.


animal models; early life; germ-free; microbial variation; mucosal immunity

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Taylor & Francis Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center