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Methods Mol Biol. 2013;997:23-33. doi: 10.1007/978-1-62703-348-0_3.

A review of the methods for human iPSC derivation.

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NIH CRM, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disorders (NIAMS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA.


The ability to reprogram somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offers an opportunity to generate pluripotent patient-specific cell lines that can help model human diseases. These iPSC lines could also be powerful tools for drug discovery and the development of cellular transplantation therapies. Many methods exist for generating iPSC lines but those best suited for use in studying human diseases and developing therapies must be of adequate efficiency to produce iPSCs from samples that may be of limited abundance, capable of reprogramming cells from both skin fibroblasts and blood, and footprint-free. Several reprogramming techniques meet these criteria and can be utilized to derive iPSCs in projects with both basic scientific and therapeutic goals. Combining these reprogramming methods with small molecule modulators of signaling pathways can lead to successful generation of iPSCs from even the most recalcitrant patient-derived somatic cells.

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