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J Genet Syndr Gene Ther. 2013 Feb 10;4(121). pii: 1000121.

Dopamine Genetics and Function in Food and Substance Abuse.

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1
Department of Psychiatry & McKnight Brain Institute, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA ; Centre for Genomics and Applied Gene Technology, Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Nonakuri, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal, India ; Department of Nutrigenomics, LifeGen, Inc., Austin, Texas, USA.

Abstract

Having entered the genomics era with confidence in the future of medicine, including psychiatry, identifying the role of DNA and polymorphic associations with brain reward circuitry has led to a new understanding of all addictive behaviors. It is noteworthy that this strategy may provide treatment for the millions who are the victims of "Reward Deficiency Syndrome" (RDS) a genetic disorder of brain reward circuitry. This article will focus on drugs and food being mutuality addictive, and the role of dopamine genetics and function in addictions, including the interaction of the dopamine transporter, and sodium food. We will briefly review our concept that concerns the genetic antecedents of multiple-addictions (RDS). Studies have also shown that evaluating a panel of established reward genes and polymorphisms enables the stratification of genetic risk to RDS. The panel is called the "Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS)", and is a tool for the diagnosis of a genetic predisposition for RDS. The use of this test, as pointed out by others, would benefit the medical community by identifying at risk individuals at a very early age. We encourage, in depth work in both animal and human models of addiction. We encourage further exploration of the neurogenetic correlates of the commonalities between food and drug addiction and endorse forward thinking hypotheses like "The Salted Food Addiction Hypothesis".

KEYWORDS:

Dopaminergic gene polymorphisms; Food addiction; Neurogenetics; Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS); Substance Use Disorder (SUD)

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