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J Affect Disord. 2013 Sep 25;150(3):760-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.02.035. Epub 2013 Mar 28.

Measuring depression in South Korea: validity and reliability of a brief questionnaire in the Korean Cancer Prevention Study.

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Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.



To examine the validity and reliability of a new questionnaire for measuring depression in a South Korean population, and then to estimate the prevalence of depression in that country using this tool.


In total, 742,600 individuals (123,725 women), aged 30-64 years at entry into the Korean Cancer Prevention Study, completed a depression symptom in 1992 (baseline enrollment) and again in 1994. We examined the concurrent validity of the depression questionnaire by relating data from it to known socio-demographic and behavioral correlates of depression; its predictive capacity by relating scores from the questionnaire to the occurrence of future hospitalization for depression; and the test-retest reliability by comparing scores from its administration in 1992 to those in 1994.


The prevalence of major depression was 7.5% in men and 10.0% in women. Factors significantly related to major depression were being younger (men), being female, not being married, of lower socioeconomic status, being a smoker, a heavy drinker, and not exercising regularly. Men (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval: 2.0; 1.8, 2.2) and women (1.6; 1.3, 1.9) with questionnaire-ascertained depression experienced an elevated risk of hospitalization for the disorder during follow-up. The rates of agreement between responses to 1992 and 1994 surveys were 91.3% in men and 88.3% in women.


These findings imply validity of the instrument and support its use in future studies directed at links of depression with somatic disease endpoints.


The questions do not have a specified time frame of reference.


Depression; Epidemiology; Prevalence; Questionnaire

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