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Urol Clin North Am. 2013 May;40(2):281-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2013.01.006. Epub 2013 Feb 26.

Diagnostically challenging cases: what are atypia and dysplasia?

Author information

1
Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

Abstract

This article addresses the spectrum of atypia and dysplasia within the bladder epithelium and the diagnostic categories developed to further classify challenging lesions. In addition, the effects of inflammation, specific therapies, and instrumentation on the bladder mucosa as well as the associated difficulty in achieving the appropriate diagnosis are also discussed.

PMID:
23540785
PMCID:
PMC5224879
DOI:
10.1016/j.ucl.2013.01.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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