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World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Mar 7;19(9):1458-65. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i9.1458.

Middle segmental pancreatectomy: a safe and organ-preserving option for benign and low-grade malignant lesions.

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Department of General Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China.



To study the feasibility and safety of middle segmental pancreatectomy (MSP) compared with pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and extended distal pancreatectomy (EDP).


We studied retrospectively 36 cases that underwent MSP, 44 patients who underwent PD, and 26 who underwent EDP with benign or low-grade malignant lesions in the mid-portion of the pancreas, between April 2003 and December 2009 in Ruijin Hospital. The perioperative outcomes and long-term outcomes of MSP were compared with those of EDP and PD. Perioperative outcomes included operative time, intraoperative hemorrhage, transfusion, pancreatic fistula, intra-abdominal abscess/infection, postoperative bleeding, reoperation, mortality, and postoperative hospital time. Long-term outcomes, including tumor recurrence, new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM), and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, were evaluated.


Intraoperative hemorrhage was 316.1 ± 309.6, 852.2 ± 877.8 and 526.9 ± 414.5 mL for the MSP, PD and EDP groups, respectively (P < 0.05). The mean postoperative daily fasting blood glucose level was significantly lower in the MSP group than in the EDP group (6.3 ± 1.5 mmol/L vs 7.3 ± 1.5 mmol/L, P < 0.05). The rate of pancreatic fistula was higher in the MSP group than in the PD group (42% vs 20.5%, P = 0.039), all of the fistulas after MSP corresponded to grade A (9/15) or B (6/15) and were sealed following conservative treatment. There was no significant difference in the mean postoperative hospital stay between the MSP group and the other two groups. After a mean follow-up of 44 mo, no tumor recurrences were found, only one patient (2.8%) in the MSP group vs five (21.7%) in the EDP group developed new-onset insulin-dependent DM postoperatively (P = 0.029). Moreover, significantly fewer patients in the MSP group than in the PD (0% vs 33.3%, P < 0.001) and EDP (0% vs 21.7%, P = 0.007) required enzyme substitution.


MSP is a safe and organ-preserving option for benign or low-grade malignant lesions in the neck and proximal body of the pancreas.


Extended distal pancreatectomy; Middle segmental pancreatectomy; Pancreatic endocrine function; Pancreatic exocrine function; Pancreatic fistula; Pancreaticoduodenectomy

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