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Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2013 Mar;36(1):73-83. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2012.12.006.

Ginkgo biloba: indications, mechanisms, and safety.

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Neuropsychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, and Clinical Outcomes Laboratory, Department of Psychology, William Paterson University, 300 Pompton Road, Wayne, NJ 07470, USA.


Ginkgo biloba special extract (EGb761) is used in most randomized control trials. Indications include cognition and memory in Alzheimer disease, age-associated dementia, cerebral insufficiency, intermittent claudication, schizophrenia, and multi-infarct dementia. Dosages range from 80 to 720 mg/d for durations of 2 weeks to 2 years. Mechanisms of action include increasing cerebral blood flow, antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects, with antiplatelet effects attributed to flavone and terpene lactones. Possible interactions with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, alprazolam, haloperidol, warfarin, and nifedipine have been reported. Optimal dosage/duration, dose-response characteristics, drug interactions, bioavailability, long-term effects, and optimal intervention timing should be the focus of future work.

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