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J Immigr Minor Health. 2014 Oct;16(5):941-50. doi: 10.1007/s10903-013-9799-3.

A systematic review on micronutrient intake adequacy in adult minority populations residing in Europe: the need for action.

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Community Nutrition Research Centre of the Nutrition Research Foundation, University of Barcelona Science Park, C/ Baldiri i Reixac, 4-8, 08028, Barcelona, Spain,


This systematic review evaluated micronutrient intake inadequacy of ten micronutrients for adult ethnic minority populations residing in Europe. Pubmed was searched for studies, related references were checked and experts consulted. Ten studies were identified and six were included in the final analysis representing Albanian, Roma, Sub-Saharan African, South Asian and African-Caribbean minority groups. The Estimated Average Requirement cut point was applied to estimate inadequate intake. With the exception of a sub-Saharan African study, of seven micronutrients analysed, inadequate intakes were markedly elevated (>50 % of the population in most cases) in both genders for folate, vitamin B(12), calcium and iron (the latter in females only). A pressing need exists for intake adequacy studies with sound methodologies addressing ethnic minority groups in Europe. These populations constitute a vulnerable population for inadequate intakes and results substantiate the need for further investigation, interventions and policy measures to reduce their nutritional risk.

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