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Ann Epidemiol. 2013 Jul;23(7):415-21. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2013.03.001. Epub 2013 Mar 25.

Adipocytokines as features of the metabolic syndrome determined using confirmatory factor analysis.

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Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA 98108, USA.



Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the hypothesis whether adipocytokines are associated with the risk factor cluster that characterizes the metabolic syndrome (MetS).


Data from 134 nondiabetic subjects were analyzed using CFA. Insulin sensitivity (SI) was quantified using intravenous glucose tolerance tests, visceral fat area by computed tomography and fasting high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), serum amyloid A (SAA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, adiponectin, resistin, leptin, interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 were measured.


The basic model representing the MetS included six indicators comprising obesity, SI, lipids, and hypertension, and demonstrated excellent goodness of fit. Using multivariate analysis, MCP-1, SAA, and TNF-α were not independently associated with any of the MetS variables. Adiponectin, resistin, leptin, CRP, and IL-6 were associated with at least one of the risk factors, but when added to the basic model decreased all goodness-of-fit parameters. PAI-1 was associated with all cardiometabolic factors and improved goodness-of-fit compared with the basic model.


Addition of PAI-1 increased the CFA model goodness of fit compared with the basic model, suggesting that this protein may represent an added feature of the MetS.

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