Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2013 Jun;11(2):83-91. doi: 10.1007/s11914-013-0138-3.

Biophysical regulation of stem cell differentiation.

Author information

1
Division of Musculoskeletal Sciences, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Penn State College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, MC: H089, Hershey, PA, USA.

Abstract

Bone adaptation to its mechanical environment, from embryonic through adult life, is thought to be the product of increased osteoblastic differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells. In parallel with tissue-scale loading, these heterogeneous populations of multipotent stem cells are subject to a variety of biophysical cues within their native microenvironments. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells-the most broadly studied source of osteoblastic progenitors-undergo osteoblastic differentiation in vitro in response to biophysical signals, including hydrostatic pressure, fluid flow and accompanying shear stress, substrate strain and stiffness, substrate topography, and electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, stem cells may be subject to indirect regulation by mechano-sensing osteocytes positioned to more readily detect these same loading-induced signals within the bone matrix. Such paracrine and juxtacrine regulation of differentiation by osteocytes occurs in vitro. Further studies are needed to confirm both direct and indirect mechanisms of biophysical regulation within the in vivo stem cell niche.

PMID:
23532405
DOI:
10.1007/s11914-013-0138-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center