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Angle Orthod. 2013 Sep;83(5):795-800. doi: 10.2319/122912-974.1. Epub 2013 Mar 26.

The influence of lower lip position on the perceived attractiveness of chin prominence.

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Department of Orthodontics, Kingston Hospital and King's College London Dental Institute, London, UK.



To evaluate the influence of the lower lip prominence for varying degrees of chin prominence in the sagittal plane and to establish whether lower lip prominence affects the perceived desire for surgery. To assess differences in preference between orthodontists and laypeople as well as the effect of age, gender, and ethnicity of observers on perceptions of attractiveness and desire for surgery.


A silhouette of an idealized profile image was created. The image was manipulated to create six images demonstrating different degrees of retrogenia and progenia altered in 4-mm increments from -12 mm to +12 mm and six images demonstrating chin and lower lip prominence in 4-mm increments from -12 mm to +12 mm. One hundred laypeople and 30 orthodontists ranked the images from the most to the least attractive. A duplicate of one of the images was used in order to assess intraexaminer reliability.


The amount and direction of sagittal chin position and the prominence of the lower lip were found to have a significant effect on image rank. Chin protrusion was less attractive than retrusion and surgery was desired more often for these images. The overall direction of opinion was the same for laypeople and orthodontists.


The chin prominence observed in a progenic patient is deemed less attractive than the combined chin and lower lip prominence observed in a patient with mandibular prognathism. In profiles with a more prominent chin a more protrusive lower lip position was preferred. When the chin was retrusive, a normal lower lip position was preferred to a retrusive lip.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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