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J Adv Nurs. 2013 Oct;69(10):2148-61. doi: 10.1111/jan.12140. Epub 2013 Mar 25.

A systematic review of the effectiveness of advanced practice nurses in long-term care.

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1
Daphne Cockwell School of Nursing, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

AIM:

To report quantitative evidence of the effectiveness of advanced practice nursing roles, clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners, in meeting the healthcare needs of older adults living in long-term care residential settings.

BACKGROUND:

Although studies have examined the effectiveness of advanced practice nurses in this setting, a systematic review of this evidence has not been conducted.

DESIGN:

Quantitative systematic review.

DATA SOURCES:

Twelve electronic databases were searched (1966-2010); leaders in the field were contacted; and personal files, reference lists, pertinent journals, and websites were searched for prospective studies with a comparison group.

REVIEW METHODS:

Studies that met inclusion criteria were reviewed for quality, using a modified version of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group risk of bias assessment criteria.

RESULTS:

Four prospective studies conducted in the USA and reported in 15 papers were included. Long-term care settings with advanced practice nurses had lower rates of depression, urinary incontinence, pressure ulcers, restraint use, and aggressive behaviours; more residents who experienced improvements in meeting personal goals; and family members who expressed more satisfaction with medical services.

CONCLUSION:

Advanced practice nurses are associated with improvements in several measures of health status and behaviours of older adults in long-term care settings and in family satisfaction. Further exploration is needed to determine the effect of advanced practice nurses on health services use; resident satisfaction with care and quality of life; and the skills, quality of care, and job satisfaction of healthcare staff.

KEYWORDS:

advanced practice nurses; clinical nurse specialists; long-term care; nurse practitioners; nursing homes; outcome assessment; quantitative systematic review

PMID:
23527481
DOI:
10.1111/jan.12140
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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