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PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e60024. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060024. Epub 2013 Mar 20.

Rectal transmission of transmitted/founder HIV-1 is efficiently prevented by topical 1% tenofovir in BLT humanized mice.

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1
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Center for AIDS Research University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America.

Abstract

Rectal microbicides are being developed to prevent new HIV infections in both men and women. We focused our in vivo preclinical efficacy study on rectally-applied tenofovir. BLT humanized mice (n = 43) were rectally inoculated with either the primary isolate HIV-1JRCSF or the MSM-derived transmitted/founder (T/F) virus HIV-1THRO within 30 minutes following treatment with topical 1% tenofovir or vehicle. Under our experimental conditions, in the absence of drug treatment we observed 50% and 60% rectal transmission by HIV-1JRCSF and HIV-1THRO, respectively. Topical tenofovir reduced rectal transmission to 8% (1/12; log rank p = 0.03) for HIV-1JRCSF and 0% (0/6; log rank p = 0.02) for HIV-1THRO. This is the first demonstration that any human T/F HIV-1 rectally infects humanized mice and that transmission of the T/F virus can be efficiently blocked by rectally applied 1% tenofovir. These results obtained in BLT mice, along with recent ex vivo, Phase 1 trial and non-human primate reports, provide a critically important step forward in the development of tenofovir-based rectal microbicides.

PMID:
23527295
PMCID:
PMC3603991
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0060024
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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