Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e58051. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058051. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

Preclinical demonstration of synergistic Active Nutrients/Drug (AND) combination as a potential treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Author information

Molecular Histology and Cell Growth Laboratory, San Raffaele Science Institute, Milano, Italy.


Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a poor prognosis disease lacking adequate therapy. We have previously shown that ascorbic acid administration is toxic to MPM cells. Here we evaluated a new combined therapy consisting of ascorbate/epigallocatechin-3-gallate/gemcitabine mixture (called AND, for Active Nutrients/Drug). In vitro effects of AND therapy on various MPM cell lines revealed a synergistic cytotoxic mechanism. In vivo experiments on a xenograft mouse model for MPM, obtained by REN cells injection in immunocompromised mice, showed that AND strongly reduced the size of primary tumor as well as the number and size of metastases, and prevented abdominal hemorrhage. Kaplan Meier curves and the log-rank test indicated a marked increase in the survival of AND-treated animals. Histochemical analysis of dissected tumors showed that AND induced a shift from cell proliferation to apoptosis in cancer cells. Lysates of tumors from AND-treated mice, analyzed with an antibody array, revealed decreased TIMP-1 and -2 expressions and no effects on angiogenesis regulating factors. Multiplex analysis for signaling protein phosphorylation exhibited inactivation of cell proliferation pathways. The complex of data showed that the AND treatment is synergistic in vitro on MPM cells, and blocks in vivo tumor progression and metastasization in REN-based xenografts. Hence, the AND combination is proposed as a new treatment for MPM.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center